By 1700, Catholicism was well established in the colonies, though the Church remained in infancy. In the Spanish Southwest, Franciscans founded numerous missions, including the California chain stretching from San Diego to San Francisco. In the English colonies, Catholics enjoyed religious freedom only in Pennsylvania, where Philadelphia remained an important center of Catholic life throughout the period. Catholics could be found among both Loyalists and Patriots, but the enthusiastic participation of many Catholics in the cause for independence, combined with the French alliance and the ideas of freedom that accompanied the Revolution led to increasing toleration for Catholic faith and practice. The foundations of the Church's structure in the new nation were laid with the creation of the see of Baltimore and the naming of its first bishop, John Carroll.
1711 Fr. Eusebio Kino dies in Arizona
1724 Fr. Sebastien Rale killed by New England war party
1752 Fr. Ferdinand Farmer arrives in Lancaster, Pennsylvania
1776 Charles Carroll of Carrollton signs Declaration of Independence
1776 Tadeusz Kosciuszko joins American cause
1777 Casimir Pulaski made commander of American cavalry
1778 Fr. Pierre Gibault pledges support to American cause
1782 Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur publishes Letters from an American Farmer
1784 Serra dies, Fr. Fermín Lasuén becomes head of California missions
1789 Fr. John Thayer ordained
1790 Mathew Carey publishes first American edition of Douay-Reims bible
1791 First Catholic seminary in US founded, St. Mary's of Baltimore
1793 Fr. Stephen Badin first priest ordained in U.S.
1793 Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas created
1794 John Barry made chief of US Navy